Wednesday, September 29, 2010
The World Without Us by Alan Weisman
Death is a bummer.
I mean, here's the thing - we all know we're going to die. It's part of the human condition, knowing that sooner or later the only existence that we've ever known is going to come to an end. And that'll be it - no more us. It's a creepy thought, to be honest, which is why most of us do our everlovin' best to ignore it. We all know that we're going to die, but we don't want to know it, so we ignore it. We eat our Super-Double-CheezyFries, go BASE jumping, vote Republican, willfully ignoring the inevitable truth that these things are going to end up killing us.
Even when we are confronted with our mortality, we still find ways to console ourselves. We look around at our families and our friends and say things like, "No one truly dies so long as they're remembered." And we accept that even if we aren't there, other people are. The things we've done in our lives, no matter how tiny, will echo around humanity as long as it lasts. If we are truly lucky, we will have contributed greatly to our species as a whole and gained a very special place in history.
But then we remember that even history is impermanent. The average species only gets to live about four million years, and we've already eaten up about a quarter of that. What's more, we seem to be doing our level best to come in below average. Science tells us one inescapable fact: nothing lasts forever. One day, maybe sooner, maybe later, the last of the humans will die. Perhaps we'll be replaced by another intelligence, one that can continue our work. Or perhaps we'll just leave everything behind. All that will be left will be artifacts, objects that tell the story of humanity.
And that cheers you up a bit. We're good at leaving marks, after all. We built a wall that's so big it's practically landscape. We split two continents apart in the name of commerce. We have girded our land masses in iron and asphalt, erected great cities of glass, concrete and steel. We have lowered mountains and raised seas, extracted the blood of the earth and bent the rivers to our will. Even if the human race vanished tomorrow, some far-future alien archaeologist would still be able to come here and know that a brilliant and puissant species once walked this world.
Yeah. About that....
This book was inspired by a very simple question: what would happen if all the humans just... disappeared? How it happened doesn't really matter. Maybe aliens, maybe Jesus, perhaps some strange, species-specific quantum Critical Existence Failure. Whatever the cause, the sun rises in the morning and humans just aren't there anymore. How would the world handle our disappearance? Would it even notice? What has humanity wrought that would last?
It's a simple question with an incredibly complex answer. In order to even begin to know what would happen upon our disappearance, we need to know how the world works. We need to look at the forces that drive evolution and species propagation. What is it that allows life to spread and to flourish, to adapt to changing circumstances and make the best of a hard situation? What do we know from our studies of the unimaginably distant past that will help us foretell the future?
In addition, we need to know what effect humans have already had on the world. We've all heard the horror stories about the species driven to extinction by carelessness or ignorance - the passenger pigeon, the moa, the dodo - but our effect has been so much greater. Weisman is willing to categorize humanity as a force of nature thanks to the effect that we've had. Our relentless conquest of the Earth has, in small ways and large, unavoidably set evolution on a path that would have been very different had we never arisen in the first place. In a way, our influence can never be truly erased, and will likely survive for as long as biology does.
Finally, we need to know about the things we're leaving behind. What is our world made of, and how well would it survive the rigors of time? The oceans of concrete that we've poured will freeze and thaw over and over again, and, aided by the surprising power of flowers and grass, will split, crack and crumble in time. Our massive steel skyscrapers will be undone by water and creeping vegetation. Our stonework will be worn down by wind and water, our satellites will fall, dams will burst and the wilderness will relentlessly take over the sacred places of the world. In the end, the only testament to our existence will be a handful of bronze statues and gold ornaments, and the impassive visages of the faces on Mt. Rushmore.
And even they will one day fall.
If you're one of those people who worries about the impact that humanity has had on the earth, this will be a heartening book. As the geologic record shows, there's pretty much nothing the universe can throw at this planet that can kill it. At least not so far. And the impact that humans are having isn't anywhere near the great extinctions of the past, in which great swaths of death cut through the biosphere in a matter of decades. Understand this: there is nothing that we can do to the earth that the earth cannot undo, given time.
And that is a comforting thought. We do sometimes get wrapped up in our own awesomeness and assume that our actions have infinite consequences when, in fact, they don't. We beat our breasts about the ozone hole and the Amazon, the Northwest African Cheetah and the Sharp Snouted Day Frog. We read about garbage gyres in the sea, and irradiated wastes on the land and despair over what we have done to this world.
The truth is that the world will move on after humans, and the future will hardly know that we were here.
That's where the book got depressing for me, though. You see, I can take or leave individuals. I think The People are, in general, dumber than a Texas schoolbook. But all in all, I like Humanity. In the two hundred thousand years or so that Homo sapiens has been wandering this world, we've done some really neat things. We've built globe-spanning civilizations, produced unparalleled art, music and architecture, and invented worlds of brilliant fiction. We've examined the universe at its largest and peered back in time to the moment it began. We have gazed into the heart of the atom to know how reality works at its smallest levels. We've danced and sang and lived. And even with the terrible things that we've done, both to each other and to our world, I still think we're a species worth knowing. We're a species that deserves better than oblivion.
But the universe doesn't care about what we deserve.
So if you take anything away from the book, let it be this - our existence here as a species is temporary. There's no reward for our goodness, nor punishment for our sins. But here and now, we are alive, and capable of amazing things. It is up to us to decide what those things will be, and how to spend the time remaining to us.
Let's make it wondrous.
"Below the surface, the oxidizing metal parts of chemical alley will provide a place for Galveston oysters to attach. Silt and oyster shells will slowly bury them, and will then be buried themselves. Within a few million years, enough layers will amass to compress shells into limestone, which will bear an odd, intermittent rusty streak with sparkling traces of nickel, molybdenum, niobium, and chromium. Millions of years after that, someone or something might have the knowledge and tools to recognize the signal of stainless steel. Nothing, however, will remain to suggest that its original form once stood tall over a place called Texas, and breathed fire into the sky."
- Alan Weisman, The World Without Us
Alan Weisman on Wikipedia
The World Without Us on Wikipedia
The World Without Us on Amazon.com
The World Without Us homepage
And if the sure and certain knowledge of your own eventual cessation has got you low, watch this. It might cheer you up a bit....